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You are here:Home » Molecular Biology » MB-Growth Factors-TGF » TGF-b1, Recombinant, Human (Transforming Growth Factor beta 1, TGFB1)

TGF-b1, Recombinant, Human (Transforming Growth Factor beta 1, TGFB1)


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TGF­b1 (transforming growth factor beta 1) is one of three closely related mammalian members of the large TGF­b superfamily that share a characteristic cystine knot structure (1­7). TGF­b1, ­2 and ­3 are highly pleiotropic cytokines that are proposed to act as cellular switches that regulate processes such as immune function, proliferation and epithelial­mesenchymal transition (1­4). Each TGF­b isoform has some non­redundant functions; for TGF­b1, mice with targeted deletion show defects in hematopoiesis and endothelial differentiation, and die of overwhelming inflammation (2). Human TGF­b1 cDNA encodes a 390 aa precursor that contains a 29 aa signal peptide and a 361 aa proprotein (8). A furin­like convertase processes the proprotein to generate an N­terminal 249 aa latency­associated peptide (LAP) and a C­terminal 112 aa mature TGF­b1 (8, 9). Disulfide­linked homodimers of LAP and TGF­b1 remain non­covalently associated after secretion, forming the small latent TGF­b1 complex (8­10). Covalent linkage of LAP to one of three latent TGF­b binding proteins (LTBPs) creates a large latent complex that may interact with the extracellular matrix (9, 10). TGF­b is activated from latency by pathways that include actions of the protease plasmin, matrix metalloproteases, thrombospondin 1 and a subset of integrins (10). Mature human TGF­b1 shares 100% aa identity with pig, dog and cow TGF­b1, and 99% aa identity with mouse, rat and horse TGF­b1. It demonstrates cross­species activity (1). TGF­b1 signaling begins with high­affinity binding to a type II ser/thr kinase receptor termed TGF­b RII. This receptor then phosphorylates and activates a second ser/thr kinase receptor, TGF­b RI (also called activin receptor­like kinase (ALK) ­5), or alternatively, ALK­1. This complex phosphorylates and activates Smad proteins that regulate transcription (3, 11, 12). Contributions of the accessory receptors betaglycan (also known as TGF­b RIII) and endoglin, or use of Smad­independent signaling pathways, allow for disparate actions observed in response to TGF­b in different contexts (11).
Catalog #167703
SourceRecombinant corresponding to aa279-390 Human TGF-b1 expressed in HEK293 cells (P01137).
Molecular Weight~12.8kD
Biological ActivityMeasured by its ability to inhibit the IL-4-dependent proliferation of HT-2 mouse T cells.
<0.10 EU per 1ug of protein by the LAL method
Storage and StabilityLyophilized powder may be stored at -20°C. Stable for 12 months at -20°C. Reconstitute with sterile buffer or ddH2O. Aliquot to avoid repeated freezing and thawing. Store at -20°C. Reconstituted product is stable for 6 months at -20°C. For maximum recovery of product, centrifuge the original vial after thawing and prior to removing the cap. Further dilutions can be made in assay buffer.
Molecular Weight~12.8kD
Purity~95% (SDS-PAGE)
FormSupplied as a lyophilized powder in TFA, acetonitrile. No BSA added. Reconstitute at 100ug/ml in sterile 4mM HCl.
Important NoteThis product as supplied is intended for research use only, not for use in human, therapeutic or diagnostic applications without the expressed written authorization of United States Biological.

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