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You are here:Home » Molecular Biology » MB-Lipoproteins » PAPC (1-palmitoyl-2-arachidonoyl-sn-phosphatidylcholine)

PAPC (1-palmitoyl-2-arachidonoyl-sn-phosphatidylcholine)

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Specifications

1-palmitoyl-2-arachidonoyl-sn-phosphatidylcholine (PAPC), is a naturally occuring phospholipid containing polyunsaturated arachidonic acid, which is a common lipid in mammalian cell membranes and lipoproteins. PAPC can be used as an unoxidized control in experiments utilizing oxidized PAPC (OxPAPC). OxPAPC, is a prototypic biologically active oxidized phospholipid first isolated from LDL minimally modified by oxidation (MM-LDL). OxPAPC is an active principle of MM-LDL and mimicks several pro- and anti-inflammatory effects induced by oxidized lipoproteins. Oxidation of PAPC generates two groups of oxidized phospholipids containing either fragmented or oxygenated sn-2 residues. The best-characterized fragmented species contain a five-carbon sn-2 residue bearing omega-aldehyde or omega-carboxyl groups. Oxygenation of arachidonic acid residue produces phospholipids containing esterified isoprostanes. Both fragmented and oxygenated species can regulate immune reactions. Pro-inflammatory effects of OxPAPC induce stimulation of endothelial cells to bind monocytes and induction of tissue clotting factor, IL-8, MCP-1, G-CSF and other mediators of atherothrombosis. Anti- inflammatory effects of OxPAPC are mediated by induction of protective enzymes such as heme oxygenase-1 and suppression of innate immune responses to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) due to inhibition of LPS recognition by LPS-binding protein (LBP) and CD14. OxPAPC is active in vivo and was shown to protect mice from lethal endotoxin shock.
Catalog #P3100-30
SourceSynthetic PAPC.
Biological ActivityBiological activities of OxPAPC are mediated by a variety of signal transduction mechanisms, including elevation of cAMP and Ca2+ levels, activation of MAP kinases, PI-3-kinase and small GTPases Rac-1 and Cdc42. OxPAPC-induced protein synthesis is mediated by transcription factors such as Egr-1, NFAT, CREB, PPAR-alpha, PPAR-gamma, but does not involve NFkB-dependent transcription.
ApplicationsSuitable for use as an unoxidized control in experiments utilizing oxidized PAPC. Other applications not tested.
Recommended DilutionsNegative control for OxPAPC: The concentration range in which PAPC can be used is dependent on the cell type and should be equal to OxPAPC, usually below 100ug/ml. Please note that PAPC can be oxidized by cells.
Optimal dilutions to be determined by the researcher.
Storage and StabilityLyophilized powder may be stored at -20°C. Stable for 12 months at -20°C. Reconstitute with sterile buffer. Aliquot to avoid repeated freezing and thawing. Store at -20°C. Reconstituted product is stable for 6 months at -20°C. For maximum recovery of product, centrifuge the original vial after thawing and prior to removing the cap. Further dilutions can be made in assay buffer.
SourceSynthetic
FormDried synthetic PAPC
Important NoteThis product as supplied is intended for research use only, not for use in human, therapeutic or diagnostic applications without the expressed written authorization of United States Biological.


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