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United States Biological
Newsletter

Growth Factors:
cellsGrowth factors stimulate cellular growth, proliferation and cellular differentiation and regulate a variety of cellular processes.They typically act as signaling molecules between cells. Cytokines are also signaling molecules involved in cellular communication. They often activate and recruit immune cells to increase the system's response to a pathogen and are also involved in several developmental processes during embryogenesis.

cytokineCytokine

A sampling of Growth Factor and Cytokine Products:

Insulin-Like Growth Factor I, Recombinant, Human (IGF1)
IGF is a well-characterized basic peptide believed to be secreted by the liver and to circulate in the blood. It has growth-regulating, insulin-like, and mitogenic activities. This growth factor has a major, but not absolute, dependence on Somatotropin. It is believed to be mainly active in adults in contrast to Insulin like Growth Factor 2, which is a major fetal growth factor.

Interferon gamma, Recombinant, Human (IFNg)
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated lymphocytes. It is structurally different from type I interferon and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of class II histocompatibility antigens in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to autoimmune disease. Interferon gamma is produced mainly by T-cells and natural killer cells activated by antigens, mitogens, or alloantigens. It is produced by lymphocytes expressing the surface antigens CD4 and CD8. The synthesis of IFN-gamma is induced, among other things, by Interleukin-2, FGF-basic, and EGF.

Interleukin 4, Recombinant, Human (IL-4)
Interleukin (IL)-4, produced primarily by CD4(+) T cells is an immunomodulatory cytokine, which can inhibit the growth of tumour cells.IL-4 has been known as a Th2 cytokine and can act on B cells, T cells, and monocytes.Interleukin (IL)-4 exhibits antitumor activity in rodent experimental gliomas, which is likely mediated by the actions of IL-4 on a variety of immune cells present in and around the tumor masses


Newsletter Bonus Special:

 Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor

mcsf 	  Macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) is one of the glycoproteins called colony-stimulating factors (CSFs).A mononuclear phagocyte colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) synthesized by mesenchymal cells. The compound stimulates the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of hematopoietic cells of the monocyte-macrophage series. Some clinical investigations have shown autologous production of M-CSF various human cell lines in vitro and by tumors in vivo.


This month's Special:
MAP3K14 (NIK) and Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase 1B

P9109-01A Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase 1B , N2567-05 MAP3K14 (NIK)

MAP3K14 (NIK; mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 14) is a serine/threonine protein-kinase. This kinase binds to TRAF2 and stimulates NF-kappaB activity.

Protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) 1B is believed to function as a negative regulator of multiple signaling pathways downstream of receptor tyrosine kinases.

MES

Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase


Growth Factors
Signaling Proteins

Growth Factors
Growth factors are proteins that bind to receptors on the cell surface; they are capable of activating cellular proliferation and/or differentiation. Growth factors typically act as signaling molecules between cells. Cytokines are a sub-class of signaling proteins that are used extensively in cellular communication, immune function and embryogenesis. They are more correctly identified as hormones than as growth factors based on their overall functions.

Nomenclature:
Interleukins and Cytokines
Cytokines are secreted primarily from leukocytes and they stimulate both humoral and cellular immune responses, as well as the activation of phagocytic cells. Cytokines that are secreted from lymphocytes are termed lymphokines, whereas those secreted by monocytes or macrophages are termed monokines. Many of the lymphokines are also known as interleukins (ILs), since they are not only secreted by leukocytes but also able to affect the cellular responses of leukocytes. Specifically, interleukins promote the development and differentiation of T, B, and hematopoietic cells.

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