Technical Data
Heptelidic acid (Koningic acid, Avocettin, FO-4443, BRN 5091359)
Biochemicals Storage: 4C/-20CShipping: Blue Ice
Potent selective glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) inhibitor. Binds to the essential Cys149 residue in the catalytic site of GADPH.
Anticancer compound. Selectively kills high-glycolytic cancer cells through glucose-dependent active ATP deprivation.
Apoptosis inhibitor. DNA fragmentation and caspase-3 activation inhibitor.
Selective and competitive inhibitor of mammalian DNA polymerases beta, lambda and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT) in family X of pols.

Storage and Stability:
Short-term Storage: +4C
Long-term Storage: -20C
Stable for at least 3 years after receipt when stored at -20C.

CAS Number:

Molecular Formula:

Molecular Weight:
Purity: >95% (HPLC)

Important Note: This product as supplied is intended for research use only, not for use in human, therapeutic or diagnostic applications without the expressed written authorization of United States Biological.
Product Reference:
A new sesquiterpene antibiotic, heptelidic acid producing organisms, fermentation, isolation and characterization: Y. Itoh, et al.; J. Antibiot. (Tokyo) 33, 468 (1980)
Structure of heptelidic acid, a new sesquiterpene antibiotic from fungi: Y. Itoh, et al.; J. Antibiot. (Tokyo) 33, 525 (1980)
Specific inhibition of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase by koningic acid (heptelidic acid): A. Endo, et al.; J. Antibiot. (Tokyo) 38, 920 (1985)
Inactivation of rabbit muscle glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase by koningic acid: K. Sakai, et al.; Biochim. Biophys. Acta 952, 297 (1988)
Identification of koningic acid (heptelidic acid)-modified site in rabbit muscle glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase: K. Sakai, et al.; Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1077, 192 (1991)
Koningic acid (heptelidic acid) inhibition of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenases from various sources: M. Kato, et al.; Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1120, 113 (1992)
Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase is required for the transport of nitric oxide in platelets: B. McDonald, et al.; PNAS 90, 11122 (1993)
Antitumor activity of heptelidic acid chlorohydrin: J. Kawashima, et al.; J. Antibiot. (Tokyo) 47, 1562 (1994)
Antimalarial activity of radicicol, heptelidic acid and other fungal metabolites: Y. Tanaka, et al.; J. Antibiot. (Tokyo) 51, 153 (1998)
Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity as an independent modifier of methylglyoxal levels in diabetes: P.J. Beisswenger, et al.; Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1637, 98 (2003)
D-Glyceraldehyde causes production of intracellular peroxide in pancreatic islets, oxidative stress, and defective beta cell function via non-mitochondrial pathways: H. Takahashi, et al.; J. Biol. Chem. 279, 37316 (2004)
Glucose-dependent active ATP depletion by koningic acid kills high-glycolytic cells: S. Kumagai, et al.; BBRC 365, 362 (2008)
Heptelidic acid, a sesquiterpene lactone, inhibits Etoposide-induced apoptosis in human leukemia U937 cells: J.H. Kim & C.H. Lee; J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 19, 787 (2009)
Novel terpenoids, trichoderonic acids A and B isolated from Trichoderma virens, are selective inhibitors of family X DNA polymerases: Y. Yamaguchi, et al.; Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 74, 793 (2010)

Intended for research use only. Not for use in human, therapeutic, or diagnostic applications.