Most commonly-used phorbol ester. Binds to and activates protein kinase C (PKC) at nM concentrations. Induces cell growth arrest through a variety of pathways including the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), p38 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathways mediated by cyclin dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors such as p21WAF1/CIP1, p27KIP1, p15 and p16. Potent mouse skin tumor promoter. Promoter of inducible NOS (iNOS; NOS II). Apoptosis inducer. Potential effective cancer therapeutic agent. Inhibitor of anti-lipolytic activity of insulin.
Storage and Stability:
Lyophilized powder may be stored at -20°C. Stable for 6 months after receipt at -20°C. Reconstitute with DMSO, methanol, 100% ethanol, acetone, ether or dimethylformamide. Aliquot to avoid repeated freezing and thawing. Store at -20°C. Reconstituted product is stable for 6 months at -20°C. For maximum recovery of product, centrifuge the original vial after thawing and prior to removing the cap. Protect from light.
Purity: ~95% (HPLC)
Important Note: This product as supplied is intended for research use only, not for use in human, therapeutic or diagnostic applications without the expressed written authorization of United States Biological.
In vitro studies on the mode of action of the phorbol esters, potent tumor promoters: part 1: P.M. Blumberg; Crit. Rev. Toxicol. 8, 153 (1980) In vitro studies on the mode of action of the phorbol esters, potent tumor promoters: part 2: P.M. Blumberg; Crit. Rev. Toxicol. 8, 199 (1981)Skin tumor promotion by phorbol esters is a two-stage process: G. Fürstenberger, et al.; PNAS 78, 7722 (1981) Phorbol esters as signal transducers and tumor promoters: M. Castagna; Biol. Cell 59, 3 (1987), Review Phorbol esters induce nitric oxide synthase activity in rat hepatocytes. Antagonism with the induction elicited by lipopolysaccharide: S. Hortelano, et al.; J. Biol. Chem. 267, 24937 (1992) Phorbol ester induces apoptosis in HL-60 promyelocytic leukemia cells but not in HL-60 PET mutant: D.E. Macfarlane & P.S. O'Donnel; Leukemia 7, 1846 (1993) Effect of intravenous infusions of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13- acetate (TPA) in patients with myelocytic leukemia: Preliminary studies on therapeutic efficacy and toxicity: T.H. Zheng, et al.; PNAS 95, 5357 (1998)12-O-Tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced increase in depressed white blood cell counts in patients treated with cytotoxic cancer chemotherapeutic drugs: T.H. Zheng, et al.; PNAS 95, 5362 (1998)Characterization of phorbol esters activity on individual mammalian protein kinase C isoforms, using the yeast phenotypic assay: L. Saraiva, et al.; Eur. J. Pharmacol. 491, 101 (2004)Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate inhibits the antilipolytic action of insulin, probably via the activity of protein kinase Cepsilon: J. Nakamura; Eur. J. Pharmacol. 648, 188 (2010)|
|Intended for research use only. Not for use in human, therapeutic, or diagnostic applications.|