Technical Data
Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA, TPA, 12-O-Tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate)
Biochemicals Storage: 4°C/-20°CShipping: Blue Ice
Most commonly-used phorbol ester. Binds to and activates protein kinase C (PKC) at nM concentrations. Induces cell growth arrest through a variety of pathways including the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), p38 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathways mediated by cyclin dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors such as p21WAF1/CIP1, p27KIP1, p15 and p16. Potent mouse skin tumor promoter. Promoter of inducible NOS (iNOS; NOS II). Apoptosis inducer. Potential effective cancer therapeutic agent. Inhibitor of anti-lipolytic activity of insulin.

Storage and Stability:
Short-term Storage: +4°C
Long-term Storage: -20°C
Stable for at least 2 years after receipt when stored at -20°C.

CAS Number:

Molecular Formula:

Molecular Weight:
Purity: >98% (HPLC)

Important Note: This product as supplied is intended for research use only, not for use in human, therapeutic or diagnostic applications without the expressed written authorization of United States Biological.
Product Reference:
In vitro studies on the mode of action of the phorbol esters, potent tumor promoters: part 1: P.M. Blumberg; Crit. Rev. Toxicol. 8, 153 (1980)
In vitro studies on the mode of action of the phorbol esters, potent tumor promoters: part 2: P.M. Blumberg; Crit. Rev. Toxicol. 8, 199 (1981)
Skin tumor promotion by phorbol esters is a two-stage process: G. Fürstenberger, et al.; PNAS 78, 7722 (1981)
Phorbol esters as signal transducers and tumor promoters: M. Castagna; Biol. Cell 59, 3 (1987), Review
Phorbol esters induce nitric oxide synthase activity in rat hepatocytes. Antagonism with the induction elicited by lipopolysaccharide: S. Hortelano, et al.; J. Biol. Chem. 267, 24937 (1992)
Phorbol ester induces apoptosis in HL-60 promyelocytic leukemia cells but not in HL-60 PET mutant: D.E. Macfarlane & P.S. O'Donnel; Leukemia 7, 1846 (1993)
Effect of intravenous infusions of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13- acetate (TPA) in patients with myelocytic leukemia: Preliminary studies on therapeutic efficacy and toxicity: T.H. Zheng, et al.; PNAS 95, 5357 (1998)
12-O-Tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced increase in depressed white blood cell counts in patients treated with cytotoxic cancer chemotherapeutic drugs: T.H. Zheng, et al.; PNAS 95, 5362 (1998)
Characterization of phorbol esters activity on individual mammalian protein kinase C isoforms, using the yeast phenotypic assay: L. Saraiva, et al.; Eur. J. Pharmacol. 491, 101 (2004)
Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate inhibits the antilipolytic action of insulin, probably via the activity of protein kinase Cepsilon: J. Nakamura; Eur. J. Pharmacol. 648, 188 (2010)

Intended for research use only. Not for use in human, therapeutic, or diagnostic applications.