Technical Data
Bacillus anthracis PA, Protective Antigen (Anthrax)
After inhalation by mammals, Bacillus anthracis spores germinate in alveolar macrophages then migrate to lymph nodes where they multiply. The vegetative bacteria excrete the tripartite exotoxin which consists of three polypeptides: protective antigen (PA, 83kD), lethal factor (LF, 90kD) and oedma factor (OF, 89kD). The two components (OF and LF) of the toxin enzymatically modify substrates within the cytosol of the mammalian cells: The OF is an adenylate cyclase that impairs the host defenses through a variety of mechanisms inhibiting phagocytosis. The LF is a zinc dependent protease that cleaves several mitogen activated protein kinase kinases (MAPKK) and causes lysis of macrophages. To intoxicate mammalian cells, the third component of the toxin PA, binds to a ubiquitously expressed cellular receptor, Tumor Endothelium Marker-8 (TEM8). Upon binding to TEM8, PA is cleaved into 20 and 63kD fragments (PA20 and PA63) by furin or furin-like proteases. PA20 dissociates into medium and allows the PA63 fragment to heptamerize and bind LF and OF of the toxin. The resulting complex of PA63 fragment with EF and/or OF binds to PA-receptor TEM8/ATR and internalized into endosomes followed by translocation of LF and OF into cytosol of the cells.

Suitable for use in ELISA and Western Blot. Other applications not tested.

Recommended Dilutions:
Western Blot (ECL): 1-10ug/ml
ELISA: 0.1-1ug/ml
Optimal dilutions to be determined by the researcher.

Storage and Stability:
Lyophilized powder may be stored at -20C. Stable for 12 months after receipt at -20C. Reconstitute with sterile PBS. Aliquot to avoid repeated freezing and thawing. Store at -20C. Reconstituted product is stable for 12 months at -20C. For maximum recovery of product, centrifuge the original vial after thawing and prior to removing the cap. Further dilutions can be made in assay buffer.
100ug-20CBlue IceGoat
~1mg/ml (after reconstitution)
Recombinant corresponding to purified Bacillus anthracis Protective Antigen (PA83).
Supplied as a lyophilized powder from PBS, pH 7.4, 0.1% sodium azide. Reconstitute with 100ul sterile PBS.
Recognizes both PA63 and PA83 of B. anthracis Lethal Factor. No cross-reactivity with Lethal Factor (LF) of Bacillus anthracis, Y. Pestis, F. Tularensis and Toxoplasma gondi.
Intended for research use only. Not for use in human, therapeutic, or diagnostic applications.
1. Bradley KA et al (2001) Nature 414, 225-229; 2. Liu S and Leppla SH (2002) JBC; 3. Leppla, SH (1982) PNAS 79, 3182; 4. OBrien J et al (1985) Infect Immun 47, 306; 5. Duesbery, NS et al (1998) Science 280, 734