Chromogranin A (a protein of 439-amino acid which is encoded on chromosome 14) is present in neuroendocrine cells throughout the body, including the neuroendocrine cells of the large and small intestine, adrenal medulla and pancreatic islets. It is an excellent marker for carcinoid tumors, pheochromocytomas, paragangliomas, and other neuroendocrine tumors. Coexpression of chromogranin A and neuron specific enolase (NSE) is common in neuroendocrine neoplasms.
Suitable for use in Immunohistochemistry (formalin/paraffin). Other applications not tested.
Immunohistochemistry: 0.5-1.0ug/ml for 30 min at RT. Although not required, staining of formalin/paraffin tissues is ENHANCED by boiling the tissue sections in 10mM citrate buffer, pH 6.0 for 10-20 min followed by cooling at RT for 20 min.
Optimal dilution determined by the researcher.
MW of Antigen:
Storage and Stability:
May be stored at 4°C for short-term only. For long-term storage and to avoid repeated freezing and thawing, aliquot and add glycerol (40-50%). Freeze at-20°C or colder. Aliquots are stable for at least 12 months at-20°C. For maximum recovery of product, centrifuge the original vial after thawing and prior to removing the cap. Further dilutions can be made in assay buffer.
|Intended for research use only. Not for use in human, therapeutic, or diagnostic applications.|
1. Lloyd RV, et. al. Science, 1983, 222:62830. 2. Riddell K, et. al. Lab Invest 56:64A, 1987|
Additional: 1. Battersby S; Dely CJ; Hopkinson HE; Anderson TJ. The nature of breast dense core granules: chromogranin reactivity. Histopathology, 1992, 20:10714. 2. Lukinius A; Wilander E; Eriksson B; Oberg K. A chromogranin peptide is co-stored with insulin in the human pancreatic islet B-cell granules. Histochemical Journal, 1992 Sep, 24(9):67984. 3. Wirnsberger GH; Becker H; Ziervogel K; Hofler H. Diagnostic immunohistochemistry of neuroblastic tumors. Am J of Surgical Pathology, 1992, 16:4957. 4. Diepholder HM; Schwechheimer K; Mohadjer M; Knoth R; Volk B. A clinicopathologic and immunomorphologic study of 13 cases of ganglioglioma. Cancer, 1991, 68(10):2192- 201. 5. Kalina M; Grimelius L. Chromogranins or chromograninlike proteins are present in lamellar bodies and pulmonary surfactant of rat alveolar type II cells. Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry, 1991 Feb, 39(2):21320. 6. Munoz DG. Chromogranin A-like immunoreactive neurites are major constituents of senile plaques. Lab Investigation, 1991, 64:82632. 7. Weihe E; Horsch D; Eiden LE; Hartschuh W. Dual presence of chromogranin A-like immunoreactivity in a population of endocrine-like cells and in nerve fibers in the human anal canal. Neuroscience Letters, 1991 Sep 16, 130(2):1904. 8. Andreola S; Lombardi L; Audisio RA; Mazzaferro V; Koukouras D; Doci R; Gennari L; Makowka L; Starzl TE; van Thiel DH. A clinicopathologic study of primary hepatic carcinoid tumors. Cancer, 1990 Mar 1, 65(5):12118. 9. Becker H; Wirnsberger G; Ziervogel K; Hofler H. Immunohistochemical markers in (ganglio)neuroblastomas. Acta Histochemica. Supplementband, 1990, 38:10714. 10. McAuliffe WG; Hess A. Human chromogranin A-like immunoreactivity in the Bergmann glia of the rat brain. Glia, 1990, 3(1):136. 11. Munoz DG; Kobylinski L; Henry DD; George DH. Chromogranin A-like immunoreactivity in the human brain: distribution in bulbar medulla and cerebral cortex. Neuroscience, 1990, 34(3):53343. 12. Chang TK; Li CY; Smithson WA. Immunocytochemical study of small round cell tumors in routinely processed specimens. Archives of Pathol and Lab Medicine, 1989, 113:13438. 13. Hawkins KL; Lloyd RV; Toy KA. Immunohistochemical localization of chromogranin A in normal tissues from laboratory animals. Veterinary Pathology, 1989 Nov, 26(6):48898. 14. Lloyd RV; Iacangelo A; Eiden LE; Cano M; Jin L; Grimes M. Chromogranin A and B messenger ribonucleic acids in pituitary and other normal and neoplastic human endocrine tissues. Laboratory Investigation, 1989 Apr, 60(4):54856. 15. Hearn SA. Electron microscopic localization of chromogranin A in osmium-fixed neuroendocrine cells with a protein A-gold technique. Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochem, 1987, 35:795801. 16. Wahl RL; Wilson BS; Liebert M; Beierwaltes WH. Highdose, unlabeled, nonspecific antibody pretreatment: influence on specific antibody localization to human melanoma xenografts. Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy, 1987, 24(3):2214. 17. Aguirre P; Scully RE; Wolfe HJ; DeLellis RA. Argyrophil cells in Brenner tumors: histochemical and immunohistochemical analysis. Int Journal of Gynecological Pathology, 1986, 5(3):22334. 18. Wilson BS; Phan SH; Lloyd RV. Chromogranin from normal human adrenal glands: purification by monoclonal antibody affinity chromatography and partial N-terminal amino acid sequence. Regulatory Peptides, 1986 Feb, 13(34):20723. 19. Bussolati G; Gugliotta P; Sapino A; Eusebi V; Lloyd RV. Chromogranin-reactive endocrine cells in argyrophilic carcinomas (carcinoids) and normal tissue of the breast. Am J of Pathol, 1985, 120:18692. 20. Varndell IM; Lloyd RV; Wilson BS; Polak JM. Ultrastructural localization of chromogranin: a potential marker for the electron microscopical recognition of endocrine cell secretory granules. Histochemical Journal, 1985 Sep, 17(9):98192. 21. DeStephano DB; Lloyd RV; Pike AM; Wilson BS. Pituitary adenomas. An immunohistochemical study of hormone production and chromogranin localization. American Journal of Pathology, 1984 Sep, 116(3):46472. 22. Wilson BS; Lloyd RV. Detection of chromogranin in neuroendocrine cells with a monoclonal antibody. American Journal of Pathology, 1984 Jun, 115(3):45868. 23. Lloyd RV; Wilson BS. Specific endocrine tissue marker defined by a monoclonal antibody. Science, 1983 Nov 11, 222(4624):62830. 24. Dottorini ME; Assi A; Sironi M; Sangalli G; Spreafico G; Colombo L. Multivariate analysis of patients with medullary thyroid carcinoma. Prognostic significance and impact on treatment of clinical and pathologic variables. Cancer, 1996 Apr 15, 77(8):155665. 25. Bjerkehagen B; Fossa SD; Raabe N; Holm R; Nesland JM. Transitional cell carcinoma of the renal pelvis and its expression of p53 protein, c-erbB-2 protein, neuron-specific enolase, Phe 5, chromo-granin, laminin and collagen type IV. European Urology, 1994, 26(4):3349. 26. Haddad MG; Silverman JF. Fine-needle aspiration cytology of metastatic basal cell carcinoma of the skin to the lung. Diagnostic Cytopathology, 1994, 10(1):159. 27. Munoz DG. Chromogranin A-like immuno-reactive neurites are major constituents of senile plaques. Laboratory Investigation, 1991, 64:82632.