Technical Data
F0019-58X1
Farnesyltransferase, subunit (FNTA)
Description:
Farnesyltransferase is one of the three enzymes in the prenyltransferase group. Specifically, farnesyltransferase (FTase) adds a 15 carbon isoprenoid called a farnesyl group to proteins bearing a CaaX motif: a four amino acid sequence at the carboxyl terminus of a protein. Farnesyltransferase's targets include members of the Ras superfamily of small GTP binding proteins critical to cell cycle progression. For this reason, several FTase inhibitors are undergoing testing as anti-cancer agents. FTase inhibitors have also shown efficacy as anti-parasitic agents as well. FTase is also believed to play an important role in development of progeria and various forms of cancers.

Farnesyltransferase, posttranslationally modify proteins by adding an isoprenoid lipid called a farnesyl group to the carboxyl terminus of the target protein. This process, called farnesylation (more generally prenylation), causes farnesylated proteins to become membrane associated due to the hydrophobic nature of the farnesyl group. Most farnesylated proteins are involved in cellular signaling where membrane association is critical for function.
[edit]Farnesyltransferase structure and function

Farnesyltransferase has two subunits: a 48kD alpha subunit and a 46kD beta subunit. Both subunits are primarily composed of alpha helices. The subunit is made of a double layer of paired alpha helices stacked in parallel which wraps partly around the beta subunit like a blanket. The alpha helices of the subunit form a barrel. The active site is formed by the center of the subunit flanked by part of the subunit. Farnesyltransferase coordinates a zinc cation on its subunit at the lip of the active site. Farnesyltransferase has a hydrophobic binding pocket for farnesyl diphosphate, the lipid donor molecule. All farnesyltransferase substrates invariably have a cysteine as their fourth to last residue. This cysteine engages in an SN2 type attack, coordinated by the zinc and a transient stabilizing magnesium ion on the farnesyl diphosphate, displacing the diphosphate. The product remains bound to farnesyltransferase until displaced by new substrates. The last three amino acids of the CaaX motif are removed later.

There are four binding pockets in FTase which accommodate the last four amino acids on the carboxyl-terminus of a protein. Only those with a suitable CaaX motif can bind. As stated above the fourth to last residue is always a cysteine. The other three residues may vary. The carboxyl-terminal amino acid (X) discriminates FTases targets from those of the other prenyltransferases, allowing only six different amino acids to bind with any affinity. It has been shown that geranylgeranyltransferase one of the other prenyltransferases can prenylate some of the substrates of Farnesyltransferase and vice versa.

Applications:
Suitable for use in Western Blot. Other applications not tested.

Recommended Dilution:
Western Blot: 1:1000
Optimal dilutions to be determined by the researcher.

Storage and Stability:
May be stored at 4C for short-term only. For long-term storage and to avoid repeated freezing and thawing, aliquot Freeze at -20C. Aliquots are stable for at least 12 months at -20C. For maximum recovery of product, centrifuge the original vial after thawing and prior to removing the cap. Further dilutions can be made in assay buffer.

Quality Control Testing
Immunoblot Analysis: A 1:1,000 dilution of this lot detected farnesyltransferase, subunit in SKBR-3 cell lysate. Immunoblot Analysis Lysates from SKBR-3 cells was resolved by electrophoresis, transferred to PVDF (Immobilon-P), and probed with antifarnesyltransferase, subunit for 2 hours at room temperature. Proteins were visualized via HRP and chemiluminescent detection. Arrow indicates farnesyltransferase, subunit.
TypeIsotypeCloneGrade
MabIgG17i16Affinity Purified
SizeStorageShippingSourceHost
100ul-20CBlue IceMouse
Concentration:
Not determined
Immunogen:
Full length GST-farnesyltransferase, alpha subunit protein
Purity:
Purified by Protein A.
Form
Supplied as a liquid in PBS with 0.1% sodium azide.
Specificity:
Specific to the alpha subunit of farnesyl transferase.
Intended for research use only. Not for use in human, therapeutic, or diagnostic applications.
1. Delarue, F L, et al (2006). Farnesyltransferase and geranylgeranyltransferase I inhibitors upregulate RhoB expression by HDAC1 dissociation, HAT association and histone acetylation of the RhoB promoter.
2. Lubet, Ronald A, et al (2006). Effects of the farnesyl transferase inhibitor R115777 (Zarnestra) on mammary carcinogenesis: prevention, therapy, and role of HaRas mutations. Mol Cancer Ther 5: 1073- 1078.
General References:
Reid, T. Scott, Terry, Kimberly L., Casey, Patrick J., Beese, Lorena S., (2004) Crystallographic Analysis of CaaX prenyltransferases Complexed with Substrates Defines Rules of Protein Substrate Selectivity, J. Mol. Bio, 343, 417-433.
Eastman, Richard T., Buckner, Frederick S., et al., (2006) Fighting parasitic disease by Blocking Protein Farnesylation, Journal of Lipid Research, 47, 233-240.
Beese, Lorena, S., Lane, Kimberly T. Structural biology of protein farnesyltransferase and geranylgeranyltransferase type 1. Journal of Lipid Research, 47, 68 698.
Long, Stephen B., Casey, Patrick J., Beese, Lorena S., Reaction path of protein farnesyltransferase at atomic resolution. Nature, 419, 645-650.