Technical Data
H2034-50B
Heterochromatin Protein 1, alpha (HP1a, Antigen p25, Chromobox Homolog 5 (Drosophila), Cbx5, HP1Hs-alpha)
Description:
Heterochromatin protein-1 (HP1) is a methyl-lysine binding protein localized at heterochromatin sites, where it mediates gene silencing. It has been shown that mammalian methyltransferases that selectively methylate histone H3 on lysine-9 generate a binding site for HP1 proteins, a family of heterochromatic adaptor molecules implicated in both gene silencing and supranucleosomal chromatin structure. High-affinity in vitro recognition of a methylated histone H3 peptide by HP1 requires a functional chromodomain. Thus, the HP1 chromodomain is a specific interaction motif for the methyl epitope on lysine-9 of histone H3. In vivo, heterochromatin association of HP1 proteins is lost in Suv39h double-null primary mouse fibroblasts but is restored after reintroduction of a catalytically active SUV39H1 HMTase. A molecular mechanism through which the SUV39H-HP1 methylation system can contribute to the propagation of heterochromatic subdomains in native chromatin has been defined. It has been demonstrated that HP1 can bind with high affinity to histone H3 methylated at lysine-9 but not at lysine-4. The chromodomain of HP1 as its methyl-lysine-binding domain has been identified. A point mutation in the chromodomain, which destroys the gene silencing activity of HP1 in Drosophila, abolished methyl-lysine-binding activity. Genetic and biochemical analysis in S. pombe showed that the methylase activity of Clr4 (the SUV39H1 homolog) is necessary for the correct localization of Swi6 (the HP1 equivalent) at centromeric heterochromatin and for gene silencing. A stepwise model for the formation of a transcriptionally silent heterochromatin: SUV39H1 places a methyl marker on histone H3, which is then recognized by HP1 through its chromodomain has been suggested. This model may also explain the stable inheritance of the heterochromatic state. SUV39H1 and HP1 are both involved in the repressive functions of the retinoblastoma protein. Rb associates with SUV39H1 and HP1 in vivo by means of its pocket domain. SUV39H1 cooperates with Rb to repress the cyclin E promoter, and in fibroblasts that are disrupted for SUV39H1, the activity of the cyclin E and cyclin A2 genes are specifically elevated. The SUV39H1-HP1 complex is not only involved in heterochromatic silencing but also has a role in repression of euchromatic genes by Rb and perhaps other corepressor proteins.

Cellular Localization: Nuclear

Applications:
Suitable for use in Western Blot. Other applications not tested.

Recommended Dilution:
Optimal dilutions to be determined by the researcher.

Storage and Stability:
May be stored at 4C for short-term only. For long-term storage and to avoid repeated freezing and thawing, aliquot Store at -20C. Aliquots are stable for at least 12 months at -20C. For maximum recovery of product, centrifuge the original vial after thawing and prior to removing the cap. Further dilutions can be made in assay buffer.
TypeIsotypeCloneGrade
PabPurified
SizeStorageShippingSourceHost
100ul-20CBlue IceHumanRabbit
Concentration:
~13mg/ml
Immunogen:
A synthetic peptide containing an N-terminal region of human HP 1 alpha (within residues 1-100).
Purity:
Purified
Form
Supplied as a liquid in PBS, pH 7.2.
Specificity:
Species Crossreactivity: Reacts with human. Expected to react with mouse, Arabidopsis suecica, Rye and Triticum aestivum due to sequence homology.
Intended for research use only. Not for use in human, therapeutic, or diagnostic applications.
1. Bannister AJ et al. Selective recognition of methylated lysine 9 on histone H3 by the HP1 chromo domain. Nature 410:120-4 (2001).
2. Lachner M et al. Methylation of histone H3 lysine 9 creates a binding site for HP1 proteins. Nature 410:116-20 (2001).
3. Nielsen SJ et al. Rb targets histone H3 methylation and HP1 to promoters. Nature 412:561-5 (2001).