Hyaluronic Acid, Bovine
|Molecular Biology||Storage: 4°C Do Not FreezeShipping: Blue Ice|
The hyaluronic acids (HA) are a class of macromolecular proteoglycans characterized by a highly polymerized chain of glucuronic acid and N-acetylglucosamine units bonded to protein. They exist in nature as a hydrated gel, usually closely associated with other tissue components such as chrondroitin sulfate. Hyaluronic acid (HA) preparations have variable molecular weights depending on purification procedures, the extent of degradation, as well as the source. The range of molecular weight is 70kD to 2,000-4,000kD in a highly polymerized preparation. Bovine vitreous humor HA has a lower molecular weight than most other sources. The hyaluronic acids are a class of macromolecular proteoglycans characterized by a highly polymerized chain of the repeating disaccharide glucuronic acid -(1-3) N-acetylglucosamine ( 1-4).
The molecular weight of HA preparations varies with purification procedures, i.e., the extent of degradation as well as the source. According to Bettelheim (1958) when the protein is completely removed a molecular weight on the order of 70,000 is obtainable as compared with 2-4 million in a highly polymerized preparation (Laurent and Gergely 1955). It has been reported (Laurent et al. 1960) that bovine vitreous humor hyaluronic acid has a lower molecular weight than most other sources and that from human umbilical cord has the largest molecular weight (Jensen and Carlsen 1954). Pigman et al. (1961) report that HA is degraded in the presence of oxygen and reducing agents and by merthiolate, often used in its preparation. Ascorbic acid likewise has this effect (Swann 1967). The carbohydrate polymer is negatively charged. When it is mixed with a cationic protein such as albumin at low pH, a precipitate is formed. If the glycosidic bonds have been split, i.e., the chain depolymerized, this precipitation no longer occurs. This phenomenon is the basis for the turbidimetric assay of hyaluronidase.
Bovine vitreous humor
Storage and Stability:
Store lyophilized powder desiccated at -15°C or below. Reconstitute to nominal volume by adding sterile dH2O. Aliquot and store at -20°C. Reconstituted product is stable for 12 months at -20°C. Further dilutions can be made in assay buffer.
Source: Bovine vitreous humor
Form: Supplied as a lyophilized powder.
Specificity: Suitable as a substrate for hyaluronidase assays.
Important Note: This product as supplied is intended for research use only, not for use in human, therapeutic or diagnostic applications without the expressed written authorization of United States Biological.
Atkins, E., and Sheehan, J.: Structure of Hyaluronic Acid , Nature New Biol 235, 253, 1972
Barrett, T.: Hyaluronic Acid Salt - A Mechanoelectrical Transducer , Biochim Biophys Acta 385, 157, 1975
Bettelheim, F.: Crystalline Sodium Hyaluronate , Nature 182, 1301, 1958
Bettelheim, F., and Philpott, D.: Electron Microscopic Studies of Hyaluronic Acid - Protein Gels , Biochim Biophys Acta 34, 124, 1959
Block, A., and Bettelheim, F.: Water Vapor Sorption of Hyaluronic Acid , Biochim Biophys Acta 201, 69, 1970
Blumberg, B., Oster, G., and Meyer, K.: Changes in the Physical Characteristics of the Hyaluronate of Ground Substance with Alterations in Sodium Chloride Concentration , J Clin Invest 34, 1454, 1955
Cowman, M., Cozart, D., Nakanishi, K., and Balazs, E.: 1H NMR of Glycosaminoglycans and Hyaluronic Acid Oligosaccharides in Aqueous Solution: The Amide Proton Environment , Arch Biochem Biophys 230, 203, 1984
Frost, S., and Weigel, P.: Binding of Hyaluronic Acid to Mammalian Fibrinogens , Biochim Biophys Acta 1034, 39, 1990
Hardingham, T., and Muir, H.: Hyaluronic acid in cartilage and proteoglycan aggregation. , Biochem Soc Trans 1, 282, 1973
Jacoboni, I., Mori, V., Quaglino Jr., D., and Pasquali-Ronchetti, I.: Hyaluronic Acid by Atomic Force Microscopy , J Struct Biol 126, 52, 1999
Jensen, C., and Carlsen, F.: Hyaluronic Acid. VI. An Electron Microscope Study of Potassium Hyaluronate, Acta Chem Scand 8, 1357, 1954