Technical Data
Macrophage Inflammatory Protein 1 alpha, aa24-92, Recombinant, Rat (MIP-1a, CCL3)
Molecular Biology Storage: -20CShipping: Blue Ice
CCL3, also known as macrophage inflammatory protein 1 alpha (MIP-1a) and LD78, is a member of the B or CC subfamily of chemokines and is closely related to CCL4/MIP-1B. Chemokines comprise a large family of small secreted proteins that are involved in immune and inflammatory responses. CCL3 expression can be induced in a variety of hematopoietic cells, fibroblasts, smooth muscle cells, and epithelial cells (1). Mature rat CCL3 shares 74%, 91%, 88% aa sequence identity with human, mouse, and cotton rat CCL3, respectively (2). CCL3 is an ~8kD chemokine that forms complexes with sulfated proteoglycans (3, 4). In a reversible process, CCL3 associates into noncovalently-linked dimers which then form tetramers and high molecular weight polymers (5, 6). These complexes of CCL3 are protected from proteolytic digestion by insulin degrading enzyme (IDE) which can cleave the monomeric chemokine (6). CCL3 exerts its biological functions through interactions with CCR1, CCR3, and CCR5 (1). It is cleared from the extracellular space by internalization via the decoy chemokine receptor D6 (7). CCL3 promotes the chemoattraction, adhesion to activated vascular endothelium, and cellular activation of many hematopoietic cell types including activated T cells, NK cells, neutrophils, monocytes, immature dendritic cells, and eosinophils (1, 8-10). CCL3 is also known as stem cell inhibitor (SCI) and can inhibit the proliferation of hematopoietic progenitor cells (3). CCL3 bioactivity contributes to tumor metastasis and the inflammatory components of viral infection, rheumatoid arthritis, and hepatitis (11-14), although it also can suppress the replication of HIV (15). CCL3 additionally promotes hyperalgesia by sensitizing sensory neurons to TRPV1-mediated noxious stimulation (16).

Recombinant corresponding to aa24-92 from human MIP-1a expressed in E. coli.

Molecular Weight:

Endotoxin Level:
1EU/1ug (LAL)

Biological Activity:
Measured by its ability to chemoattract human CCR5 transfected BaF3 mouse pro-B cells.
The ED50 for this effect is typically 0.3-1.5ng/mL.

Storage and Stability:
Lyophilized powder may be stored at -20C. Stable for 12 months at -20C. Reconstitute with PBS. Aliquot to avoid repeated freezing and thawing. Store at -20C. Reconstituted product is stable for 6 months at -20C. For maximum recovery of product, centrifuge the original vial after thawing and prior to removing the cap. Further dilutions can be made in assay buffer.

Molecular Weight:
Source: E. coli
Purity: ~95% (SDS-PAGE)
Concentration: Not determined
Form: Supplied as a lyophilized powder in PBS. Reconstitute with PBS to 100ug/ml.

Important Note: This product as supplied is intended for research use only, not for use in human, therapeutic or diagnostic applications without the expressed written authorization of United States Biological.
1. Menten, P. et al. (2002) Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 13:455. 2. Shi, M.M. et al. (1995) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 211:289. 3. Graham, G.J. et al. (1990) Nature 344:442. 4. Wagner, L. et al. (1998) Nature 391:908. 5. Graham, G.J. et al. (1994) J. Biol. Chem. 269:4974. 6. Ren, M. et al. (2010) EMBO J. 29:3952. 7. Weber, M. et al. (2004) Mol. Biol. Cell 15:2492. 8. Taub, D.D. et al. (1993) Science 260:355. 9. Bernardini, G. et al. (2008) Blood 111:3626. 10. Lee, S.C. et al. (2000) J. Immunol. 164:3392. 11. Wu, Y. et al. (2008) J. Immunol. 181:6384. 12. Cook, D.N. et al. (1995) Science 269:1583. 13. Chintalacharuvu, S.R. et al. (2005) Immunol. Lett. 100:202. 14. Ajuebor, M.N. et al. (2004) Eur. J. Immunol. 34:2907. 15. Cocchi, F. et al. (1995) Science 270:1811. 16. Zhang, N. et al. (2005) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 102:4536.

Intended for research use only. Not for use in human, therapeutic, or diagnostic applications.