Technical Data
MD-2 (MD-2 Protein, ESOP1, ESOP-1, Lymphocyte Antigen 96, LY96)
MD-2 enables TLR4 to respond to a wide variety of LPS partial structures, Gram-negative bacteria, and Gram-positive lipoteichoic acid, but not to Gram-positive bacteria, peptidoglycan, and lipopeptide. Toll Like Receptors (TLRs) are the mammalian homologues of the Drosophila Toll protein, which is a transmembrane receptor. TLR2 and TLR4 are essential components for recognition of distinct bacterial cell wall components. TLRs have been shown to participate in the recognition of pathogens by the innate immune system. The cytoplasmic domain of TLR2 can form functional pairs with TLR6 or TLR1, and this interaction leads to cytokine induction. TLR6, TLR2, and TLR1 are recruited to macrophage phagosomes that contain IgG-coated erythrocytes that do not display microbial components. TLRs sample the contents of the phagosome independent of the nature of the contents, and can establish a combinatorial repertoire to discriminate among the large number of pathogen-associated molecular patterns found in nature. Bacterial components elicit the activation of an intracellular signaling cascade via TLR in a way similar to that which occurs upon ligand binding to the IL-1 receptor. This signaling pathway leads to the activation of a transcription factor NF-_B and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), which initiate the transcription of pro-inflammatory cytokine genes. TLRs and the downstream signaling pathway play a key role in innate immune recognition and in the subsequent activation of adaptive immunity.

Suitable for use in Western Blot and Immunohistochemistry. Other applications not tested.

Recommended Dilution:
Western Blot: 0.5-2ug/ml (mouse spleen cell lysate)
Immunohistochemistry: 2ug/ml (rat spleen cells).
Optimal dilutions to be determined by the researcher.

Storage and Stability:
May be stored at 4C for short-term only. For long-term storage and to avoid repeated freezing and thawing, add sterile glycerol (40-50%), aliquot and store at -20C. Aliquots are stable for at least 12 months at -20C. For maximum recovery of product, centrifuge the original vial after thawing and prior to removing the cap. Further dilutions can be made in assay buffer.

PabIgGHighly Purified
100ug4C (-20C Glycerol)Blue IceHumanRabbit
Peptide corresponding to amino acids near the middle region of human MD-2 (GenBank accession no. NP_056179).
Purified by Ion Exchange chromatography.
Supplied as a liquid in PBS, pH 7.4, 0.02% sodium azide.
Recognizes human MD-2. Species Crossreactivity: Mouse and rat.
Intended for research use only. Not for use in human, therapeutic, or diagnostic applications.
1. O'Neill LAJ, Fitzgerald FA, and Bowie AG. The Toll-IL-1 receptor adaptor family grows to five members. Trends in Imm. 2003; 24:286-9. 2. Vogel SN, Fitzgerald KA, and Fenton MJ. TLRs: differential adapter utilization by toll-like receptors mediates TLR-specific patterns of gene expression. Mol. Interv. 2003; 3:466-77. 3. Takeda K, Kaisho T, and Akira S. Toll-like receptors. Annu. Rev. Immunol. 2003; 21:335-76. 4. Janeway CA Jr and Medzhitov R. Innate immune recognition. Annu. Rev. Immunol. 2002; 20:197-216. 5. Shimazu R, Akashi S, Ogata H, et al. MD-2, a molecule that confers lipopolysaccharide responsiveness on Toll-like receptor 4. J. Exp. Med. 1999; 189:1777-82. 6. Akashi S, Saitoh S, Wakabayashi Y, et al. Lipopolysaccharide interaction with cell surface Toll-like receptor 4-MD-2: higher affinity than that with MD-2 or CD14. J. Exp. Med. 2003; 10:1035-1042. 7. Akashi S, Nagai Y, Ogata H, et al. Human MD-2 confers on mouse Toll-like receptor 4 species-specific lipopolysaccharide recognition. Int. Immunol. 2001; 13:1595-9.