Technical Data
Pyruvate Kinase, Tumor Type M2 (PKM2)
Pyruvate kinase, a glycolytic enzyme, catalyzes the conversion of phosphoenolpyruvate to pyruvate. In mammals, the M1 isoform (PKM1) is expressed in most adult tissues (1). The M2 isoform (PKM2), an alternatively-spliced variant of M1, is expressed during embryonic development (1). Studies found that cancer cells exclusively express PKM2 (1-3). PKM2 is shown to be essential for aerobic glycolysis in tumors (Warburg effect) (1). When the M2 isoform is switched to the M1 isoform, aerobic glycolysis is reduced and oxidative phosphorylation is increased in cancer cells (1). These cells also show decreased tumorigenicity in mouse xenografts (1). Recent studies show that the oncogenic forms of FGFR1 directly phosphorylate Tyr105 of PKM2 and thereby inhibit the formation of active tetrameric PKM2 (4). A PKM2 mutant found in cancer cells, in which Tyr105 is replaced by phenylalanine, leads to reduced cell proliferation in hypoxia and tumor growth in xenografts in nude mice (4). These findings suggest that the phosphorylation at Tyr105 is a critical switch for the metabolism in cancer cells that promotes tumor growth (4).

Suitable for use in Western Blot and Immunohistochemistry. Other applications not tested.

Recommended Dilution:
Western Blot: 1:1000
Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin): 1:100; Using a citrate unmasking buffer.
Immunohistochemistry (Frozen): 1:100; Using a 3% formaldehyde fixative.
Optimal dilutions to be determined by the researcher.

Storage and Stability:
May be stored at 4C for short-term only. Aliquot to avoid repeated freezing and thawing. Store at -20C. Aliquots are stable for 12 months. For maximum recovery of product, centrifuge the original vial after thawing and prior to removing the cap.
PabIgGAffinity Purified
100ul-20CBlue IceHumanRabbit
Not determined
Synthetic peptide corresponding to the sequence of human PKM2 conjugated to KLH. Molecular Weight: 60kD.
Purified by Protein A and immunoaffinity chromatography.
Supplied as a liquid in 10mM sodium HEPES, pH 7.5, 150mM sodium chloride, 0.1mg/ml BSA, 50% glycerol.
Recognizes endogenous levels of total human PKM2 protein at 60kD. Species Crossreactivity: monkey, mouse and rat.
Intended for research use only. Not for use in human, therapeutic, or diagnostic applications.
1. Christofk, H.R., et al., Nature 452: 230-233 (2008). 2. Mazurek, S., et al., Semin. Cancer Biol. 15: 300-308 (2005). 3. Dombrauckas, J.D., et al., Biochemistry 44, 9417-9429 (2005). 4. Hitosugi, T., et al., Sci. Signal 2: ra73 (2009). 5. Zhang, B., et al., World J. Gastroenterol. 10: 1643-1646 (2004). 6. Hardt, P.D., et al., Br. J. Cancer 91: 980-984 (2004).