Cell permeable, competitive, non-specific cAMP and cGMP phosphodiesterase inhibitor. Increases cAMP levels that activate PKA, leading to decreased proliferation, increased differentiation and induction of apoptosis. Enhances differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells. Non-selective adenosine receptor antagonist. Inhibits Ca2+ ion channels. Activates TNF-alpha. Adipogenic. Activates leukotriene synthesis. Reduces inflammation and innate immunity.
IC50 values are 13, 18, 19, 32 and 50uM for PDE4, PDE3, PDE1, PDE5 and PDE2 respectively
DMSO, Dichloromethane, Ether, Ethyl acetate, Methanol and ethanol. Insoluble in water.
Storage and Stability:
Short-term Storage: +4°C
Long-term Storage: -20°C
Stable for at least 2 years after receipt when stored at -20°C.
Purity: 99% (HPLC)
Form: White to off-white solid
Important Note: This product as supplied is intended for research use only, not for use in human, therapeutic or diagnostic applications without the expressed written authorization of United States Biological.
Effects of xanthine derivatives on lipolysis and on adenosine 3',5'- monophosphate phosphodiesterase activity: J.A. Beavo, et al.; Mol. Pharmacol. 6, 597 (1970)|
Inhibition of growth of primary and metastatic Lewis lung carcinoma cells by the phosphodiesterase inhibitor isobutylmethylxanthine: P. Janik, et al.; Cancer Res. 40, 1950 (1980)
A role for soluble cAMP phosphodiesterases in differentiation of 3T3-L1adipocytes: M.L. Elks & V.C. Manganiello; J. Cell Physiol. 124, 191 (1985)
Adenosine receptors: development of selective agonists and antagonists: J.W. Daly, et al.; Prog. Clin. Biol. Res. 230, 41 (1987)
Primary sequence of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase isozymes and the design of selective inhibitors: J.A. Beavo & D.H. Reifsnyder; TIPS 11, 150 (1990)
Isobutylmethylxanthine and other classical cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase inhibitors affect cAMP-dependent protein kinase activity: C. Tomes, et al.; Cell Signal. 5, 615 (1993)
IBMX induces calcium release from intracellular stores in rat sensory neurones: Y. Usachev & A. Verkhratsky; Cell Calcium 17, 197 (1995)
Inhibition of recombinant human cardiac L-type Ca2+ channel alpha1C subunits by 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine: I.M. Fearon, et al.; Eur. J. Pharmacol. 342, 353 (1998)
Up-regulation of the cAMP/PKA pathway inhibits proliferation, induces differentiation, and leads to apoptosis in malignant gliomas: T.C. Chen, et al.; Lab. Invest. 78, 165 (1998)
The phosphodiesterase inhibitor IBMX suppresses TNF-alpha expression in human adipocyte precursor cells: a possible explanation for its adipogenic effect: F. Hube, et al.; Horm. Metab. Res. 31, 359 (1999)
Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases: D.M. Essayan; J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 108, 671 (2001)
Leukotrienes: underappreciated mediators of innate immune responses: M. Peters-Golden, et al.; J. Immunol. 174, 589 (2005)
|Intended for research use only. Not for use in human, therapeutic, or diagnostic applications.|