The membrane-permeant dual-emission potential-sensitive JC-1 dye is widely used in apoptosis studies to monitor mitochondrial health by flow cytometry, fluorescence microscopy and in microplate-based fluorescent assays. JC-1 dye can be used as an indicator of mitochondrial membrane potential in a variety of cell types, including myocytes and neurons, as well as in intact tissues and isolated mitochondria. JC-1 accumulates in mitochondria, selectively generating an orange J-aggregate emission profile (590 nm) in healthy cells. After cell injury, as membrane potential decreases, JC-1 monomers are generated, resulting in a shift to green emission (529 nm). The principal advantage of JC-1 relative to other commonly employed fluorescent probes of mitochondrial membrane potential is that it allows qualitative visualization, considering the shift from orange to green fluorescence emission, and quantitative detection, considering the fluorescence intensity ratio.
DMSO, Ethanol, Methanol, Acetone
Method for Determining Identity:
Proton NMR and C-13 NMR
Storage and Stability:
Protect from light and moisture.Protect from light. May be stored at 4°C for short-term only. For long-term storage at -20°C. Stable for 12 months after receipt when stored at -20°C.
Purity: >98% (NMR)
Important Note: This product as supplied is intended for research use only, not for use in human, therapeutic or diagnostic applications without the expressed written authorization of United States Biological.
J-aggregate formation of a carbocyanine as a quantitative fluorescent indicator of membrane potential: M. Reers, et al.; Biochemistry 30, 4480 (1991)|
Intracellular heterogeneity in mitochondrial membrane potentials revealed by a J-aggregate-forming lipophilic cation JC-1: S.T. Smiley, et al.; PNAS 88, 3671 (1991)
A new method for the cytofluorimetric analysis of mitochondrial membrane potential using the J-aggregate forming lipophilic cation 5,5',6,6'-tetrachloro-1,1',3,3'-tetraethylbenzimidazolcarbocyanine iodide (JC-1): A. Cossarizza, et al.; BBRC 197, 40 (1993)
Mitochondrial membrane potential monitored by JC-1 dye: M. Reers, et al.; Methods Enzymol. 260, 406 (1995)
JC-1, but not DiOC6(3) or rhodamine 123, is a reliable fluorescent probe to assess delta psi changes in intact cells: implications for studies on mitochondrial functionality during apoptosis: S. Salvioli, et al.; FEBS Lett. 411, 77 (1997)
Functional assay of multidrug resistant cells using JC-1, a carbocyanine fluorescent probe: J.M. Kühnel, et al.; Leukemia 11, 1147 (1997)
Flow cytometric measurement of mitochondrial mass and function: a novel method for assessing chemoresistance: M. Mancini, et al.; Ann. Surg. Oncol. 5, 287 (1998)
Flow cytometric analysis of mitochondrial membrane potential using JC-1: A. Cossarizza & S. Salvioli; Curr. Protoc. Cytom. Chapter 9, Unit 9.14 (2001) (Protocol)
JC-1: a very sensitive fluorescent probe to test Pgp activity in adult acute myeloid leukemia: O. Legrand, et al.; Blood 97, 502 (2001)
Mitochondrial and nonmitochondrial reduction of MTT: interaction of MTT with TMRE, JC-1, and NAO mitochondrial fluorescent probes: T. Bernas & J. Dobrucki; Cytometry 47, 236 (2002)
JC-1, a sensitive probe for a simultaneous detection of P-glycoprotein activity and apoptosis in leukemic cells: D. Chaoui, et al.; Cytometry B Clin. Cytom. 70, 189 (2006)
Polychromatic analysis of mitochondrial membrane potential using JC-1: E. Lugli, et al.; Curr. Protoc. Cytom. Chapter 7, Unit 7.32 (2007) (Protocol)
Labeling mitochondria with JC-1: B. Chazotte; Cold Spring Harb. Protoc. 2011, (2011) (Protocol)
|Intended for research use only. Not for use in human, therapeutic, or diagnostic applications.|