Technical Data
Kdo2-Lipid A ((3-Deoxy-D-manno-octulosonic acid)2-Lipid A)
Biochemicals Storage: 4CShipping: Blue Ice
Defined substructure of the Re mutant of lipopolysaccharide (LPS).
Strong activator (<10ng/ml) of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). Does not activate TLR2 or other TLRs as determined with splenocytes and macrophages from TLR4 deficient mice. No further re-extraction required.

Isolated and purified from E. coli K12 heptose-deficient strain WBB06 (Re mutant) [1] by a modification of the PCP extraction method [2,3], converted to the uniform sodium salt form [4] and dissolved in sterile pyrogen-free double distilled water.

Storage and Stability:
May be stored at 4C. For long-term storage, aliquot and store at 4C. Do not freeze. Aliquots are stable for 6 months after receipt. For maximum recovery of product, centrifuge the original vial prior to removing the cap. Further dilutions can be made in assay buffer.

Molecular Formula:

Molecular Weight:
Source: E. coli
Purity: Absence of detectable protein or DNA contaminants with agonistic TLR activity.
Concentration: ~0.5mg/ml
Form: Supplied as a sterile, ready-to-use liquid in pyrogen-free double distilled water.

Important Note: This product as supplied is intended for research use only, not for use in human, therapeutic or diagnostic applications without the expressed written authorization of United States Biological.
1.Kdo2-Lipid A of Escherichia coli, a defined endotoxin that activates macrophages via TLR-4: C.R. Raetz, et al.; J. Lipid Res. 47, 1097 (2006) 2. Aggregation behavior of an ultra-pure lipopolysaccharide that stimulates TLR-4 receptors: H. Sasaki & S.H. White; Biophys. J. 95, 986 (2008)3. TLR-4 mediated group IVA phospholipase A(2) activation is phosphatidic acid phosphohydrolase 1 and protein kinase C dependent: A. Grkovich, et al.; BBA 1791, 975 (2009) 4.Subcellular organelle lipidomics in TLR 4-activated macrophages: A.Y. Andreyev, et al.; J. Lipid Res. 51, 2785(2010) 5.Spinal glial TLR4-mediated nociception and production of prostaglandin E and TNF: O. Saito, et al.; Br. J. Pharmacol. 160, 1754 (2010) 6.Low doses of lipopolysaccharide and minimally oxidized low-density lipoprotein cooperatively activate macrophages via nuclear factor kappab and activator protein-1- possible mechanism for acceleration of atherosclerosis by subclinical endotoxemia: P. Wiesner, et al.; Circ. Res. 107, 56 (2010) 7.NMR spectral mapping of Lipid A molecular patterns affected by interaction with the innate immune receptor CD14: S. Albright, et al.; BBRC 378, 721 (2009) 8.Kdo2-lipid A, a TLR4-specific agonist, induces de novo sphingolipid biosynthesis in RAW264.7 macrophages, which is essential for induction of autophagy: K. Sims, et al.; J. Biol. Chem. 285, 28568 (2010) 9.ATF3 plays a key role in Kdo2-lipid A-induced TLR4-dependent gene expression via NF-?B activation: E.Y. Kim, et al.; PLoS One 5, e14181 (2010)

Intended for research use only. Not for use in human, therapeutic, or diagnostic applications.