Defined substructure of the Re mutant of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Endotoxin activity equal to Re LPS. Strong activator (<10ng/ml) of macrophages via toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). Does not activate TLR2 or other TLRs as determined with splenocytes and macrophages from TLR4 deficient mice by IL-6 ELISA. Facilitates the structural analysis of its complexes with signaling receptors, such as TLR4/MD2 and CD14. Kdo2-Lipid A was used in a recent animal atherosclerosis model. Induces sphingolipid biosynthesis, which is essential for induction of autophagy.
Storage and Stability:
Short-term Storage: +4°C
Long-term Storage: +4°C
Stable for at least 2 years after receipt when stored at +4°C.
Purity: Absence of detectable protein or DNA contaminants with agonistic TLR activity.
Form: Sterile, ready-to-use solution in pyrogen-free double distilled water.
Important Note: This product as supplied is intended for research use only, not for use in human, therapeutic or diagnostic applications without the expressed written authorization of United States Biological.
Product Reference: |
Kdo2-Lipid A of Escherichia coli, a defined endotoxin that activates macrophages via TLR-4: C.R. Raetz, et al.; J. Lipid Res. 47, 1097 (2006)
Aggregation behavior of an ultra-pure lipopolysaccharide that stimulates TLR-4 receptors: H. Sasaki & S.H. White; Biophys. J. 95, 986 (2008)
TLR-4 mediated group IVA phospholipase A(2) activation is phosphatidic acid phosphohydrolase 1 and protein kinase C dependent: A. Grkovich, et al.; BBA 1791, 975 (2009)
Subcellular organelle lipidomics in TLR 4-activated macrophages: A.Y. Andreyev, et al.; J. Lipid Res. 51, 2785(2010)
Spinal glial TLR4-mediated nociception and production of prostaglandin E and TNF: O. Saito, et al.; Br. J. Pharmacol. 160, 1754 (2010)
Low doses of lipopolysaccharide and minimally oxidized low-density lipoprotein cooperatively activate macrophages via nuclear factor kappab and activator protein-1- possible mechanism for acceleration of atherosclerosis by subclinical endotoxemia: P. Wiesner, et al.; Circ. Res. 107, 56 (2010)
NMR spectral mapping of Lipid A molecular patterns affected by interaction with the innate immune receptor CD14: S. Albright, et al.; BBRC 378, 721 (2009)
Kdo2-lipid A, a TLR4-specific agonist, induces de novo sphingolipid biosynthesis in RAW264.7 macrophages, which is essential for induction of autophagy: K. Sims, et al.; J. Biol. Chem. 285, 28568 (2010)
ATF3 plays a key role in Kdo2-lipid A-induced TLR4-dependent gene expression via NF-?B activation: E.Y. Kim, et al.; PLoS One 5, e14181 (2010)
|Intended for research use only. Not for use in human, therapeutic, or diagnostic applications.|