TLR9 is a member of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family that plays a fundamental role in pathogen recognition and activation of innate immunity. TLRs are highly conserved from Drosophila to humans and share structural and functional similarities. They recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) that are expressed on infectious agents, and mediate the production of cytokines necessary for the development of effective immunity. The various TLRs exhibit different patterns of expression. TLR9 gene is preferentially expressed in immune cell rich tissues, such as spleen, lymph node, bone marrow and peripheral blood leukocytes. Studies in mice and human indicate that this receptor mediates cellular response to unmethylated CpG dinucleotides in bacterial DNA to mount an innate immune response.
Suitable for use in Flow Cytometry, Immunocytochemistry, Immunohistochemistry and Western Blot. Other applications have not been tested.
Flow Cytometry (Intracellular): 0.1-2ug/10e6 cells; cell surface
Immunohistochemistry (Frozen and paraffin): 10-20ug/ml on frozen sections.
Western Blot: 1-5ug/ml
Optimal dilutions to be determined by the researcher.
Storage and Stability:
May be stored at 4°C before opening. DO NOT FREEZE! Stable at 4°C as an undiluted liquid. Dilute only prior to immediate use. Freezing R-Phycoerythrin (PE) conjugates will result in a substantial loss of activity.
|100ug||4°C Do not freeze||Blue Ice||Human||Mouse|
|Synthetic peptide corresponding to aa 268-284 in the cytoplasmic portion of human TLR9 (Toll-like Receptor 9).|
|Purified by Protein G affinity chromatography.|
|Supplied as a liquid in PBS, 0.05% sodium azide. Labeled with R-Phycoerythrin (PE).|
|Recognizes human TLR9. Detects a band of ~120kD by Western blot, may also detect a smaller band of TLR9 isoform B. Species crossreactivity: mouse, rat, equine, canine and monkey.|
|Intended for research use only. Not for use in human, therapeutic, or diagnostic applications.|
[1. CpG oligodeoxynucleotides activate HIV replication in latently infected human T cells: C. Scheller, et al.; J. Biol. Chem. 279, 21897 (2004). 2. Cytoplasmic domain-mediated dimerizations of toll-like receptor 4 observed by beta-lactamase enzyme fragment complementation: H.K. Lee, et al.; J. Biol. Chem. 279, 10564 (2004). 3. Evidence of Toll-like receptor molecules on human platelets: F. Cognasse, et al.; Immunol. Cell Biol. 83, 196 (2005). 4. TGF-alpha regulates TLR expression and function on epidermal keratinocytes: L.S. Miller, et al.; J. Immunol. 174, 6137 (2005). 5. Human lung cancer cells express functionally active Toll-like receptor 9: D. Droemann, et al.; Respir. Res. 6, 1 (2005). 6. TLR-induced inflammation in cystic fibrosis and non-cystic fibrosis airway epithelial cells: C.M. Greene, et al.; J. Immunol. 174, 1638 (2005). 7. Expression of mRNA and proteins for toll-like receptors, associated molecules, defensins and LL-37 by SRIK-NKL, a CD8+ NK/T cell line: M.D. Srivastava and B.I. Srivastava; Leuk. Res. 29, 813 (2005) |